Madonna’s Eurovision performance earlier this year was panned by many critics. Now she’s being sued over it as well.
The KAN Israeli public broadcaster, which produced the Eurovision Song Contest in May, filed a lawsuit in a Tel Aviv court on Thursday against Live Nation and Live Nation Israel. The suit, first reported by Israel’s Yediot Aharonot daily, alleges that Madonna’s representatives violated the terms of their agreement and reneged on financial promises.
A spokeswoman for KAN confirmed that the suit was filed, but declined to comment further. According to online court records, KAN is suing Live Nation for 1.375 million shekels ($390,000). A date for an initial hearing in the case has not been set yet. Live Nation Israel did not respond to a request for comment.
According to the court filing, KAN provided Madonna with technical and logistical support that went beyond the Eurovision production, costs that were supposed to be covered by the singer’s team. The additional support included projectors, headphones, additional stage assistants, tents, security and other extra staff. KAN alleges that Live Nation agreed to cover those costs but never paid up, and attempts to recoup the money since the show have been unsuccessful.
Madonna’s appearance fee for the 2019 Eurovision was covered by Canadian-Israeli billionaire Sylvan Adams. KAN publicly battled with the Israeli government over funding for the show, and was forced to take out a 70 million shekel loan (about $20 million) to cover the costs.
The Material Girl’s Eurovision performance was controversial from the start. After drawn-out negotiations, Madonna signed a contract only two days before she took the stage during the show’s grand finale. And KAN producers and the Eurovision organizers were not pleased that the singer displayed Israeli and Palestinian flags on the backs of two dancers during the show, something that had not appeared during rehearsals.
From Variety Via Yahoo! News
Madonna has made her impact on earth known in countless ways in the 60 years that she’s been here. But not all of her impacts are so obvious. And this includes her influence on the art world: Beyond pioneering the crossover between pop and art by hanging with the likes of Andy Warhol, Keith Haring, and her former flame Jean-Michel Basquiat in New York in the ’80s, Madonna’s art world impact has been made almost entirely behind the scenes.
Take for example, Basquiat, whom Madonna dated in the early ’80s, when they were both on the brink of fame. Now one of the most popular artists on the market, Basquiat died in 1988, at just 28 years old, meaning that there’s only so much of his work out there to be bought and put on display (which is partly why his work continues to break records at auction). And, as Madonna revealed to Howard Stern in 2015, there’s even less of it because of his reaction to their breakup in 1984.
Since it wasn’t out of the ordinary for Madonna to wake up in the middle of the night and find that Basquiat wasn’t lying in bed but was on his feet painting, it’s only natural that over the course of a couple of years Madonna came to own quite a few pieces of Basquiat’s art. Those, however, will never be seen. 'When I broke up with him, he made me give [the paintings he gave me] back to him, and then he painted over them black,' she told Stern.
It’s unclear just how many Basquiats we lost to spite - Madonna was hardly the only notable woman he dated, although certainly the most notable - but we do know there’s only a single Frida Kahlo that Madonna has been keeping from the public eye, thankfully. Unfortunately, it happens to be arguably one of the most amazing works Kahlo ever produced. Painted in 1932, My Birth is true to its title: It’s a self-portrait, but Kahlo’s head isn’t in its usual place, atop her shoulders - instead, it is in the process of emerging from the womb. It’s quite a sight to see, and quite a privilege to see it, given that Madonna turned down the Detroit Institute of Arts’ many pleas to feature it in a 2015 exhibition of the works that Kahlo made while she and Diego Rivera lived in Detroit. ('You have no idea what we went through,' the institute’s adjunct curator said at the time.)
Madonna had, in fact, loaned the painting to the Tate back in 2005, and wouldn’t have exactly been artless without it; as Vanity Fair reported in 1990, back then, at least, she also owned works by Diego Rivera, Man Ray, Weegee, Tina Modotti, Herb Ritts, and even Fernand Léger. To be fair, her appreciation for the work seems to be the reason behind her unwillingness to share it: 'If somebody doesn’t like this painting,' Madonna told the magazine, 'then I know they can’t be my friend.'
For all the great art Madonna has effectively kept from us, she’s also gone out of her way to bring art to the mainstream - not exactly surprising, given that she’s a fan of artists like Banksy and JR, who remind her of Basquiat and Haring. 'You can see Banksy’s work driving by it on the street, and JR’s work - the way he takes photographs of people and turns them into heroes in their communities and makes people proud of who they are,' she told David Blaine in 2014, adding that her son was even interning for JR.
Madonna has brought art to the streets herself in a way too, like when she used the video Green Pink Caviar by the provocative New York–based artist Marilyn Minter, with whom she’s friends, as the backdrop for a portion of her Sticky and Sweet tour, preceding its stint as part of a public art project in Los Angeles. More recently, Madonna also fundraised for her nonprofit Raising Malawi by launching a contest that would give two 'art world virgins' the chance to accompany her to Art Basel Miami Beach for an ultra-exclusive, up-close look at a plethora of blue chip art (and, as it turned out, at her twerking with Ariana Grande, which has likely only appreciated in market value since).
From W Magazine
Madonna has thrown her weight behind Miley Cyrus after the popstar posted a furious response to claims she cheated on her husband Liam Hemsworth.
The pop legend, 61, praised Cyrus, 26, telling her that she was a 'woman who has lived' and 'did not need' to apologise for any previous exploits.
In the Instagram post and series of tweets, Cyrus stated it was 'no secret' she partied, experimented with drugs and previously cheated on her ex boyfriends, but said she remained faithful to Hemsworth, 29, during their relationship.
Cyrus said: 'The truth is, once Liam & I reconciled, I meant it, & I was committed. There are NO secrets to uncover here.'
'You can say I am a twerking, pot smoking , foul mouthed hillbilly but I am not a liar.'
As noted by Instagram account Comments By Celebs, Madonna joined several other celebrities including Victoria’s Secret supermodels Taylor Hill, 23, and Lily Aldridge, 33, and actress Shailene Woodley, 27, in showing support for Cyrus, with Madonna writing: 'Thank God. You are human! A woman has lived. No need to apologise!@
Cyrus has previously stated how she looked up to Madonna as a child, and the pair performed a mash-up of Madonna’s Don’t Tell Me and Cyrus’ We Can’t Stop in 2014 at an MTV performance.
The influence that Madonna has had in the entertainment industry, in the media and on society as a whole has remained strong over the course of her 36-year career.
Despite her numerous accolades and record-breaking music sales - she's the best-selling female recording artist of all time - the 'Queen of Pop' has had to face persistent sexism and ageism throughout the years.
But Madonna has redefined the widespread stereotypes often attributed to older women time and time again, challenging hackneyed notions that people have about older women by being open with their sexuality, dating younger men and continuing to succeed in her career.
When receiving her Woman of the Year award at Billboard Women in Music 2016, the 'Like a Virgin' singer spoke about the rules that she had learnt that she was expected to abide by as a female performer.
'Do not age, because to age is a sin,' she said. 'You will be criticised, you will be vilified, and you will definitely not be played on the radio.'
Earlier this year, Madonna told The Cut that she would never stop calling the supposed social norms that older women are frequently expected to adhere to into question.
'I mean, who made those rules? Who says? I’m going to keep fighting it,' she said.
'10 to 20 years from now, it’s going to be normal. People are going to shut up.'
To read the rest of the article by Sabrina Barr visit uk.style.yahoo.com/madonna
madonnalicious and our readers wish Madonna a very happy birthday today!
Jean Paul Gaultier is a persistent man.
The fashion designer, 67, made an appearance on the British talk show 'This Morning' on Wednesday to celebrate his 50 years of working in the industry, confessing that he loves Madonna so much he proposed to her multiple times.
When asked by one of the hosts if he was in love with the 60-year-old pop icon, Gaultier said, 'I was kind of, I asked her to marry me three times … and she said no.'
But despite the Material Girl’s repeated refusals, the pair have remained close friends and continue to work together.
Gaultier designed many of the looks for her 2012 “MDNA” tour, and they even attended the 2018 'Heavenly Bodies' Met Gala as each other’s dates for the evening.
He also added that the famous cone bra he designed for the 'Like a Prayer' singer originally wasn’t made for her at all.
'I actually didn’t create the bra initially for her,' Gaultier explained. 'I have a teddy bear called Nanna and created it for her.'
From Page Six
For a while, it looked like the race between Madonna and Bruce Springsteen for the No. 1 spot on the Billboard 200 this week would be a tight one, but now that all is said and done, it turns out it wasn’t as close as some might have imagined.
Madonna’s Madame X ended up on top, beating Springsteen’s Western Stars by almost exactly 30,000 equivalent units, securing the pop icon not only another chart-topper, but moving her up on the all-time ranking of the artists who have landed in the coveted position most often in the process.
With nine chart-owners to her credit, Madonna now claims the fifth-most No. 1 albums in U.S. history, and she’s tied with some of the greatest acts to ever record and release music. Three other familiar names, Eminem, Garth Brooks and The Rolling Stones, have also made it to the highest possible rung on the Billboard 200 nine times.
Just ahead of Madonna (and company) with 10 No. 1s is Elvis Presley, and in front of him come both Barbra Streisand and Bruce Springsteen, with 11 apiece. Had the latter beaten Madonna, he would have remained in third place among artists with the most No. 1s, but he would have altered the rest of the list.
In second place comes Jay-Z with 14 leaders, and in a relatively distant first remain The Beatles, whose 19 No. 1 albums continues to be the most impressive count of any act. In fact, while plenty of artists may join this list in the coming years, and while names like Springsteen, Streisand, Eminem, Madonna and more may add to their tallies, it’s possible that no one will ever challenge The Fab Four when it comes to the most chart-toppers on the Billboard 200.
Madonna was spotted heading to the Kabbalah Centre in New York City on Saturday - for more pictures visit: www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/
After a busy week of Madame X press and promotional duties in London, Madonna has now arrived back in New York City (see pictures below at the airport).
On Thursday she has a Q&A session at the iHeartRadio Theater and then later that night will appear on The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon. Following that she has her Pride performance on Sunday 30 June, and then the tour prep starts!
For more pictures visit: www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz
When Madonna called out ageist reactions to her 14th album this month, I felt a nasty lurch of guilt in my stomach. Reviewing MDMA in 2012, I was mean about her decision to invest so much 'desperate” energy into maintaining the impression of eternal youth, leaving her looking and sounding “exhausted and unhappy and making me feel the same'.
I was 36 then and Madonna was 54. I’d just given birth to my second child and wanted to weep at the number of playgroup conversations in which the women around me discussed the diets, workouts and cosmetic surgery required to restore their figures to perky, pre-pregnancy form. The female celebrities they saw in magazines seemed time-proof and they dutifully added this responsibility to their To Do lists.
It seemed to me that if anybody had the power to flip a big, stadium-sized, multi-platinum V sign at this rubbish it was the hero of my early teens - Madonna. She had reinvented herself so many times, inspiring girls like me with possibilities of freedom and flexibility of identity.
She gave me my first feminist lesson in embracing the reality of female bodies by blow-drying her armpits in a public restroom in Desperately Seeking Susan (1985). Shortly before I saw that film, a friend of mine had provoked sniggers when she dropped a deodorant in a changing room. She flushed as the can rolled across the tiles with its shaming label promising: 'extra protection.' We were all expected to use the stuff, but to spray it discreetly, beneath the shirt, pretending we naturally smelt like whatever chemicals they put in it. And then, swaggering across the big screen came Madonna: honest about her body, owning her sweat, taking pleasure in the blast of air on her skin and looking fantastically cool in the process.
So I wanted Madonna to age like a punk: like Vivienne Westwood, flashing the wrinkles beneath the lace. I didn’t want her to stop making music or dancing in her underwear or speaking out whenever she wanted. I just wanted to her to age frankly and show me how much of a party that could be.
Which I now realise was ridiculous. Because being the world’s best-selling female artist hasn’t been a party for Madonna, has it? The self-confessed “masochist… walking alone/ never satisfied/ trying to fit in” of 2014’s 'Rebel Heart', Madonna continued to need our attention: sometimes seeking approval, sometimes being an unapologetic bitch. And she continued to be wounded by the criticism which was aimed at her more aggressively than at her male contemporaries. Sitting safely behind my keyboard with my mumtum, while the paparazzi aimed their lenses at her “wrinkled” hands, I had no right to expect her not to care. Her job was bloody hard work and I had no right to resent her for letting that show.
To read the rest of the article by Helen Brown visit: uk.news.yahoo.com
Madonna is an undeniable icon in music, but according to her, two of her kids like to refer to her by a slightly different name.
In an interview with Radio.com, the Queen of Pop, 60, revealed that her children - Lourdes, 22, Rocco, 18, David, 13, Mercy, 13 and twin girls Estere and Stelle, 6 - have various responses to her celebrity status and her twins even have a go-to response when people ask if she’s their mom.
'The older ones could care less, and the younger ones, they think it’s funny,' Madonna, 60, said. 'Today my 6-year-old twins said to me, ‘Mom, everyone’s always asking us if Madonna’s our mother. And we tell them, ‘No, Madame X is our mother.''
Madame X is the upcoming album by the 'Like a Virgin' singer, which will become her 14th studio album to date.
She also revealed that despite her busy schedule, she still manages to make time for all six kids.
'If I’m in rehearsal, they come to see me,' she said. 'My kids come to see me when I get home, then I go back to work. I usually try my best to have as many meals with them as possible.'
Along with raising six children, the pop star has her hands full with the release of her upcoming studio album Madam X, which will be followed by the Madame X Tour, which kicks off in September in New York City.
Madame ❌ had her own Met Gala! 👠👠 in Times Square.............She Travels the World! But She ♥️’s NY!🗽 pic.twitter.com/yM9Rlfuk9x— Madonna (@Madonna) 7 May 2019
Madonna arrived at Las Vegas' McCarran International Airport on Saturday ahead of her premiere performance of Medellin at the Billboard Music Awards that take place on Wednesday 01 May.
For more pictures visit: www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz
Madonna is back in London and was spotted leaving the Kabbalah Centre in London on Sunday alongside Mercy and one of her six-year-old twins.
For more pictures visit: www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz
Madonna fans were surprised by the update that took place to Madonna's Instagram page yesterday. We are hoping it is in preparation for her new album....
Hollywood stars including Ben Stiller, Madonna and Chris Rock have joined a GoFundMe appeal to raise money for the victims of the terror attack in New Zealand.
Set up by U2 and Madonna’s manager Guy Oseary, the appeal has raised nearly all of its $100,000 target in two days.
Oseary himself pledged $18,000 (around £13,500) to the fund, while other Hollywood stars have been flocking to help those affected by the tragedy, with Madonna donating $10,000.
Other celebs getting involved include director directors Judd Apatow and Ava DuVernay, and Ashton Kutcher.
'I read the frightening details and could barely find the strength to watch a short clip of the disturbing footage. My heart breaks for the victims and for their families,' Oseary, who is also Amy Schumer’s manager, wrote in setting up the page.
'We will work with GoFundMe to ensure all funds are transferred to an organisation providing support to the families and community.'
50 people were killed after shootings at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, on Friday, with 50 more people injured.
From Yahoo Movies UK
No social media was allowed at Madonna and Guy Oseary's annual post-Oscars party last night, instead a photos-booth was set-up by Time magazine who partnered up with artist and photographer JR. Even though there was no social media, these video clips from the photo-booth turned up online!
Holy shit pic.twitter.com/el27Z7NnpL— ً (@bxtchimbradonna) 25 February 2019
What happens when two boundary-pushing pop queens of different generations come together in one photo? Twitter freaks out, naturally.
That's what happened on Monday morning when a photo from Guy Oseary and Madonna's annual Oscars after-party, 'The Party,' from Sunday night started to circulate on social media. The photo in question, taken by photographer JR, comes from the party's photo booth, which had a background made from crumpled white paper, and shows Madonna embracing Lady Gaga, who is holding her newly-won Academy Award.
Because the party has a strict no social media rule, fans didn't even know that Gaga had attended Madonna's star-studded affair. The 'A Star Is Born' actress wore her second all-black look of the evening, with her hair in an Old Hollywood-style updo. Madonna opted for an off-white satin garment that she donned with a lavish gold-and-diamond headpiece and tons of other jewelry.
From AOL Via Yahoo! News
Madonna is gearing up for what will be a competitive night for Oscars afterparties this year.
Sources told Page Six that the Material Girl was spotted at spin mecca Cycle House in West Hollywood, Calif., this week. 'For the third year in a row, she had celebrity trainer and Cycle House partner Nichelle Hines do a special-edition class,' said a fit spy of the 'Like a Virgin' singer.
'The class was full - as she likes to work out in a full room and not get special treatment,' added the source. 'There were lots of hip-hop and dance tracks.'
We hear Madge wore a shirt that read 'Phenomenal Woman,' along with 'baggy sweats,' 'her hair in two braided pigtails' and 'a hat.'
'She had a blast, and was energized all ride.'
Madonna will throw her 12th annual A-list Oscars bash with manager Guy Oseary at his home after the awards Sunday.
But on the same night, Jay-Z and Beyoncé will host their second Gold Party, which we’re told will return to Chateau Marmont’s garage, with Eleven Madison Park’s Daniel Humm in charge of the menu. Adding to the jammed after-Oscars events calendar will be the venerable Vanity Fair party, plus fêtes by Fox, Netflix and Warner Bros.
From Page Six
Madonna’s Manhattan neighbors are fed up with her 'endless litigation' against their apartment building - so they’re asking a judge to force her to cover their $140,000 legal tab.
'Plaintiff is a revered performing artist, and her reputation and success are no secret,' the residents of Harperley Hall on W. 64th St. say in a new Manhattan Supreme Court filing.
'But her unique ability to fund endless litigation, however meritless, prejudices the building’s innocent shareholders who are funding this litigation while also complying with the use provision that plaintiff seeks to invalidate for personal desires,' they gripe.
The Material Mom sued the co-op in 2016 over a rule that said her children and domestic help could not live in her $7.3 million pad unless she was 'in residence' at the time.
She argued she couldn’t possibly comply because she’s a 'world-renowned recording artist' who is 'constantly on world tours' and who 'owns many residences around the world.'
But a judge wasn’t impressed and tossed the suit in 2017.
Madonna has appealed the ruling.
Her neighbors now want her to compensate them for their lawyer’s fees noting that she has 'seemingly endless means to pursue litigation, however tenuous her claims may be.'
From Page Six
Madonna was photographed heading to catch a flight out of JFK airport on Friday. For more pictures visit: www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz
Long before Madonna was named the Queen of Pop, excommunicated by the Catholic Church on three different occasions, and played sold-out world tours wearing next to nothing, she was just Madonna Louise Ciccone, a young girl growing up in a religious household in Michigan.
Madonna, now 60, has previously spoken about that modest upbringing, which doesn't quite jive with the image of her writhing around onstage at the VMAs just a few years after that photo was taken. She once described her younger self to Vanity Fair as a 'lonely girl who was searching for something.' She continued, 'I wasn't rebellious in a certain way. I cared about being good at something. I didn't shave my underarms and I didn't wear makeup like normal girls do. But I studied and I got good grades...I wanted to be somebody.'
In those days, as seen in a throwback photo she shared on Instagram this week, Madonna wasn't allowed to wear anything remotely like the provocative outfits that quickly became a staple of her onstage presence; suffice it to say, there weren't any cone bras in her childhood bedroom's closet. In the photo, Madonna and her lookalike younger sister Paula smile at the camera on a grassy lawn on the day of Madonna's high school graduation, likely in 1976 or '77. They each wear brightly patterned, sleeveless maxidresses that, as she wrote in the caption, they'd made themselves using Butterick sewing patterns. 'I was always so embarrassed we could not afford store bought dresses. In retrospect Im [sic] glad i learned how to use a sewing machine,' she wrote, adding, 'Notice No cleavage or bare knees!! Papa Ciccone was very strict.'
They say all trends inevitably come back around - so there's definitely a chance we'll see Madge rocking knee-covering, cleavage-hiding homemade dresses on her next world tour. (Then again, probably not.)
My Sister Paula and I on my High School graduation day! We sewed our own dresses from Butterick patterns. 👗 I was always so embarrassed we could not afford store bought dresses. In retrospect Im glad i learned how to use a sewing... https://t.co/hE6PJQ3JvP pic.twitter.com/39xiRJjpAF— Madonna (@Madonna) 30 January 2019
From W Magazine
Madonna was spotted wearing her Gucci x New York Yankees puffer coat, Dolce & Gabbana sneakers and a Burberry scarf while jetting out of JFK Airport on Monday. For more pictures visit: www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz
T O P .............., pic.twitter.com/qE8HlBN6j0— Madonna (@Madonna) 27 January 2019
The provocative off-Broadway show, Slave Play, has earned an early celebrity following.
Madonna, Scarlett Johansson and Whoopi Goldberg were spotted attending a showing of the Jeremy O. Harris play last weekend in New York City.
The play, which focuses on sexual relationships between mixed-race couples during the era of slavery, has earned several accolades and a bevy of admirers which also include composer Stephen Sondheim and Angels in America playwright Tony Kushner.
On Monday, Harris, 29, used Twitter to shut down a report from Page Six that Madonna was lured to the show for its 'full-frontal male nudity.'
'There’s been a lot of fake news regarding slave play,' he wrote, before confirming he and the singer, who brought daughter Lourdes Leon, 'shook hands.'
The play, which aimed to spark conversations about race, history, gender and sexuality in America, was directed by Robert O’Hara and opened at New York Theatre Workshop December 9.
It was recommended for audiences aged 17 or older, due to nudity, sexual content, simulated sexual violence and racially violent language.
The show was ultimately extended an additional two weeks through January 13, 2019, and earned the Rosa Parks Playwriting Award, the Lorraine Hansberry Playwriting Award, The Lotos Foundation Prize in the Arts and Sciences and the 2018 Paula Vogel Award.
While his professional debut was dubbed 'an antebellum fever dream,' by The New York Times, Harris was particularly impressed by the celebrity turnout on Sunday.
'Scarjo, Sondheim, Madonna, and Whoopi. The freaks don’t just come out at night y’all. They come out for slave play,' the playwright, who is still finishing his third year at the Yale School of Drama, joked on Twitter after the final performance.
'I don’t want people to be able to walk away from a play about slavery and say, ‘Oh, well, that’s not about 2018,’' he told the NY Times. 'Being a black body in the world makes you feel kind of insane.'
I remember this moment like it was yesterday.............💕🌸 i was just looking for my shoe and in the blink of an eye everything changed and thats how life is!! So you need to be ready. And you need to know what you want to do when you find that shoe. 👠! It’s the falling down that makes you great! #likeavirgin. 💍💍💍.
I remember this moment like it was yesterday...💕🌸 i was just looking for my shoe and in the blink of an eye everything changed and thats how life is!! So you need to be ready. And you need to know what you want to do when you find that... https://t.co/CX7BkyblS6 pic.twitter.com/5GHnzIMI6R— Madonna (@Madonna) 13 January 2019
Madonna hit back at reports she has had bum implants with a straight-talking Instagram post about “not seeking approval” and “having agency over her body”.
Fans questioned whether the Queen of Pop has used cosmetic procedures to enhance her derriere after videos of her performing on New Year’s Eve emerged, showing off a plump posterior.
But, despite not confirming or denying the claims, Madonna clapped back at the reports with a smouldering selfie and a play on her 1985 film Desperately Seeking Susan. She posted: 'Desperately Seeking No Ones Approval.................And Entitled to Free Agency Over My Body Like Everyone Else!!'
'Thank you 2019! Its Going to Be an amazing Year!! #2019 #freedom #respect #nofear #nodiscrimination.'
Desperately Seeking No Ones Approval..................😂. And Entitled to Free Agency Over My Body Like Everyone Else!! Thank you 2019 🎉🎉🎉! Its Going to Be an amazing Year!! 🔥🔥🔥! #2019 #freedom #respect #nofear #nodiscrimination pic.twitter.com/KmqO28WNuk— Madonna (@Madonna) 3 January 2019
Madonna, 60, sparked a frenzy when footage of her duet with 13-year-old son David Banda at a New York gay bar was posted on social media.
As the pair belted out hits including Like A Prayer and I Can’t Help Falling In Love With You, fans couldn’t help but notice Madonna was sporting a behind to rival Kim Kardashian’s.
Fans claimed her alleged butt implants were 'the saddest ending to 2018' while others accused her of looking 'ridiculous'.
In the past, Madonna has treated the world to glimpses of her behind having worn revealing dresses to the Grammy Awards in 2015 and the Met Gala in 2016.
The star even flashed fans in a cheeky Instagram video after a party at last year’s Met Gala.
From the Evening Standard